Warm Beach Camp and Stables hosted our Spring Nutrition and Pastures workshop last Saturday March 23. We brought together a veterinarian, a farm planner, and the leaders of Warm Beach Camp's Horsemanship Program discuss pastures, equine nutrition, and manure and mud management.Read More
Ah, spring….the snow is gone, the sun is shining, the grass is growing, the horses are licking their lips and pacing their paddocks waiting for you to open the gate and let them out on that beautiful, lush pasture you have limed and fertilized and protected all winter. Before you open that gate and let them run free, however, there are three things you must make sure are ready – the soil, the grass, and your horse.Read More
Today we understand the importance of preserving habitat for other species and how those can actually benefit livestock on the range. One of the most prominent species in need of habitat preservation in our region is salmon.Read More
If there is one pest that could be crowned “Kings of Irritation” to our equine friends it would be those ever-present menaces – flies.
Every year millions of dollars are spent by horse owners all over the world on chemical sprays of every kind, both organic and inorganic, to keep those pesky pests off their horses, along with the many hours spent applying said sprays. Even then, not every chemical seems to work on every horse, so the industry has created multiple chemical options to address the issue.
I can always tell a horse owner in a feed store by the smell of fly spray on their clothes. It never really goes away no matter how much you wash your hands. The lingering spray in the air always falls on your clothes or boots so that when you stand next to me in the cash register line at the Co-op I will always be able to smell that sweet smell of fly spray on you. Sorry, but it’s true. So if you want to avoid the cost and hassle of chemical fly controls – as well as detection by discerning fellow horse owners in the check-out line – there are some things you can do to manage flies biologically.
Turn Flies into Prey
Flies, like most other things on this planet, have natural predators. In the world of mammals humans have natural predators in bears (more on that in a future article) and in the insect world flies have natural predators in tiny, biteless, and completely stingless parasitic wasps commonly referred to in the horse world as “fly predators”.
Fly predators kill their prey while the flies are in the developing stages on the ground. The female fly lays her eggs on decomposing organic material, and very soon after the microscopic fly maggot burrows its way into the material and forms a cocoon. The fly predator seeks out her prey and when she sees these cocoons she deposits her eggs inside the cocoon, preventing the adult fly from hatching.
The only drawback to using fly predators is that they have a very short life span and the adult fly lays eggs at a faster rate than the fly predator. This all means you must continually replenish your supply of fly predators as the season progresses.
Attract Birds and Bats
Another inexpensive method for controlling flies is to attract other natural predators such as birds and bats. This can be done by providing the targeted predators – specifically the Violet-Green Swallow, the Barn Swallow, and bats – with houses situated in favorable spots around your property.
Violet-Green Swallows need a house because they will not build nests in barn structures like their cousin Barn Swallows. Also unlike their cousin, they do not generally poop below their house, keeping their surroundings cleaner. Violet-Green Swallow houses must have an oval shaped opening rather than round, and should not have a perch in order to prevent predators from attacking their nests. Violet-Green Swallows first appear in early May, lay a brood, then move on by mid-July. However, while the Violet-green Swallow will leave by mid-July, the Barn Swallow may lay a second brood and will hang around until mid-September.
The nice thing about both birds is that they will eat their entire body weight in flies every day. On average, these fellows weigh in around 0.63 ounces while a typical fly weighs 0.0004 ounces – that’s a daily diet for the swallow of 1,575 flies! So, the more swallows you attract, the more flies they can consume.
However, if you want to pull out the big flying guns in this battle, attract bats. They consume 500 to 1,000 flies, mosquitoes and other flying insects…an hour! Since bats typically feed 8 hours a night, that means the average bat will consume from 4,000 to 8,000 flying insects a night. Bat houses can be bought commercially or easily constructed using commercial plans, and should be located also on the south or west side of your structures. They also need a reliable water source nearby…no doubt to wash down all those flies!
At the same time you can attack flies directly using their natural predators, you can also control fly propagation by controlling the host for all their egg laying – your horse’s manure.
Building and using a compost bin is an essential weapon against parasites and pests on any horse property. It can be as simple as creating a pile and making sure it is covered to building an elaborate, forced air system with a roof and removable cover.
The key to making good compost comes down to three basics – moisture, air and temperature. The manure must always be the moisture of a damp sponge (not wet, but damp) and enough air, either from turning the pile at intervals or using a forced air system, to allow the microbes to do their job at breaking down the organic material in the manure. And the most important factor of the three is temperature. It is important that the internal temperature of the manure pile reach at least 130 degrees Fahrenheit (F) for at least 3 to 15 days depending on how your pile is constructed to kill off all the fly eggs present.
By using these good, chemical free fly controls you will not only go a long way in reducing exposure to chemicals to yourself and your horse and save time and money in the barn from applying horse spray, but you will also smell a whole lot better in the check-out line.
Manure & Lime Spreader Program Ending for 2017
The spreaders are out at the last cooperators' property and will be picked up Friday and put away for the season. We will not be taking reservations until April 2 for next spring, so mark it on your calendars. There will be some changes coming to the program that Michael Hipp, our Resource Planner / Sound Horsekeeping Program Manager, will be working on over the winter, They are changes related to efficiency so that we can better serve you all. He will let you know what those are as they become official.
A big THANK YOU to everyone who participated in the spreader program this year! 2017 was the busiest and most successful yet.
34 Cooperators (aka landowners / farmers / horsekeepers) used the spreaders; some, multiple times.
3,020 miles driven to deliver the spreaders - that's the distance from Seattle to San Salvador, El Salvador!
Only 1 flat tire on the trailer (thanks to Skagit Farmer's Supply for the assist!)
And there is no way to measure the tens of thousands of pounds of manure and lime spread this year, but it is great to know that all those nutrients are out building good soil. Thank you to our cooperators for not only having Michael out to your property to discuss soil health and good pasture management practices, but also for following through and getting your pastures one step healthier for your horses.
Please remember that if you encounter any new resource concerns over the winter Michael is always here to help. Winter in western Washington is always a challenge with horses, so please don't ever hesitate to contact him any time.
Office: (425) 377-7019 | Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Are you new to the Pacific North-Wet or do you find yourself struggling every year with mud? Do you need ideas for how to keep your horse happy and exercised while pastures rest? Please let us know!Read More
Fall is officially here. Are you and your horses ready? Now is the time to prepare for the upcoming rainy season here in western Washington. Here are a few tips and tricks to beat the winter weather this year and establish more permanent solutions for next year.Read More
Tania and Bob participate in our Sound Horsekeeping program and were awarded an attractive sign to show visitors that their farm is managed to reduce mud, manage manure, improve pastures, and enhance wildlife habitat. Would you like to be recognized as a Sound Horsekeeper? Learn how at http://snohomishcd.org/sound-horsekeeping-sign-program or call Michael Hipp at 425-377-7019.Read More
Most large animal veterinarians I know readily say that all horses have or will have parasites at some point. Most of them also prescribe a regular de-worming schedule. While this has been accepted as a good standard practice, there are some things to consider.Read More